The EFTA States should provide technical support to SACU to help it implement the Agreement. As the EFTA countries are more developed, they undertake to provide technical assistance to SACU Member States in the implementation of this trade agreement. Assistance will cover information exchange, transfer of expertise and training in trade policy, trade facilitation and trade promotion; customs and origin issues; technical rules, standards and conformity assessments, as well as sanitary and phytosanitary measures; local development of the enterprise; and regulatory support and enforcement of laws in areas such as services, investment, intellectual property and public procurement. [6] In addition, the parties undertake to coordinate their actions with the WTO and other trade organisations[6] A trade agreement was conditional on well-established trade relations between South Africa, Switzerland and Norway. It has been relatively easy for the parties to start and complete FTA negotiations[4]. The agreement was the first regional EPA in Africa to be fully operational after Mozambique began implementing the EPA in February 2018. Rules of origin determine which products qualify for trade preferences. In the SADC EPA, they were formulated in such a way as to make it much easier for SADC EPA countries to benefit from reduced EU tariffs. The textile industry, for example, benefits in countries such as South Africa or Lesotho, which depend on imported products. In addition, it is the first agreement allowing the EU to benefit from agricultural export subsidies. Article 2 of the SADC EPA recalls that the agreement is based on the principles of respect for human rights, the rule of law and democracy. But the agreement goes further than recalling these principles.

It confirms that under the existing Cotonou Agreement, “appropriate measures” may be taken if a party fails to comply with its obligations with regard to these fundamental principles. The suspension of trade benefits is such a measure, even if it would be a measure of last resort. Improved trade opportunities for goods: The EPA guarantees duty- and quota-free access to the EU market for Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia and Eswatini. South Africa enjoys new market access compared to the EU-South Africa Trade, Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA), which currently regulates trade relations with the EU until October 2016 (when the EPA entered into force provisionally and therefore lifted the trade component of the TDCA).