75 That election is based on the argument that it was the President-in-Office who had the greatest influence on its content at the time of the signing of the agreement. However, all results are identical in substance if, instead, a categorical variable is used for the President under whom the agreement entered into force. The corresponding regressions are given in the online annex. Presidents have also invoked the power to unilaterally withdraw from agreements between Congress and the executive, but there is an emerging scientific debate about the extent to which the Constitution allows the president to act in such circumstances without the consent of the legislature. Treaties have many names: conventions, agreements, alliances, pacts, charters and statutes, among others. The choice of name has no legal significance. Contracts generally fall into one of two broad categories: bilateral (between two countries) and multilateral (between three or more countries). Compare Bradford C. Clark, Domesticating Sole Executive Agreements, 93 Va. L. Rev.

1573, 1661 (2007) (arguing that the text and history of the Constitution support the position that treaties and executive agreements are not interchangeable, and argue that the supremacy clause should be read in such a way that it generally prohibits single agreements from bringing executive law into force); Laurence H. . . . .